KS212C

How to mitigate Sound Propagation through Materials in Live Sound Settings

You may remember from your science classes in school that the speed of sound is a constant, but this statement is entirely dependent on the material through which sound is propagating. Different medium transmit sound at very different speeds. So, let’s look at some typical materials that most people would encounter in indoor live sound … Read More

Setting Subwoofer Level correctly in your PA System

Subwoofers are great solutions to extend the low frequency performance of your PA system, and there are three aspects to consider carefully when setting up a subwoofer. In the following order. Subwoofer Placement If subwoofers are used in many portable and installed PA applications to enhance the overall listening and performance experience, their placement in … Read More

What Causes Loudspeaker Hum and Hiss and How to eliminate it

If you are familiar attending any type of live show, concert or performance using PA loudspeakers, you will most likely also agree that loudspeakers’ humming, hissing or buzzing noise can quickly ruin a performance. This article reviews each of the common causes of audible (and irritating) loudspeakers’ hum and hiss, and discusses effective strategies to … Read More

Understanding Closed, Vented and Band-pass Subwoofer Designs

The history of the subwoofer is inextricably linked with the evolution of the full-range loudspeaker. In the mid-1950s, various manufacturers of hi-fi loudspeakers began to introduce compact, closed-box enclosures that featured long-throw woofers, and in the early 1970s a talented engineer working at Jensen, named James Novak, developed the equations describing a bass reflex (or … Read More

What is Comb Filtering and how to avoid it

Have you ever had an experience at a live event, like a concert or a show, where the sound seemed thin, lacking in punch and dynamics, or with a disturbing phasing effect as you moved around? If the sound system was comprised of a number of loudspeakers either stacked or placed side by side, or … Read More

What does Subwoofers Mutual Coupling Mean

You will have noticed that in a large number of live events, sound engineers place subwoofers close together either on the floor, on the side of the stage, or at the top of the line-array rig. Are there any benefits in doing so, and what exactly happens? Before exploring the answer, let’s first recall some … Read More